Volume 6, issue 2



BORDERS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY. THE REVIVAL OF THE BORDER WALLS (2)



Content:



Wojciech Opioła

Editorial: More divided than ever. About the border walls in the twenty-first century
Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 79-82

Published: 17.07.2018

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Monika Trojanowska-Strzęboszewska

Strategies of border control – determinants of changes and their impact on the nature of contemporary political borders
Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 83-102

Abstract: The aim of the article is to present changes of the border control applied by European states (especially within the European Union) over the last few decades, as their reaction to the redefinition of territorial borders and new challenges in the international order.
First of all, the key determinants of these changes were identified, which influenced the nature of contemporary borders and strongly affect the applied border control strategies. The dynamic and complexity of the process are an effect of three factors: 1) the intensification of globalization and reactions of nations states to it, 2) deepening and widening of the regional integration processes (in Europe within the European Union), 3) the increase of terrorist threat (terrorism as an important treat to European security) and the linkage of terrorism with migration. All these factor are dynamic, and influence interstates borders and their functions thought their impact on particular borders are different in scope and time.
As a result of their impact, border control strategies have a multi-stage structure (multiplication of controls) and encompass instruments going beyond control activities carried out directly on territorially defined borders (externalization and internalization border controls). In addition, border controls are not only carried out by border guards in physical reality, but we are witnessing the strengthening of the importance of virtual control practices through large electronic databases. Nowadays, border control is no longer a single act, but a permanent process carried out everywhere, in physical and virtual reality. We are living in the world of bordering and it is not important which border you cross, but who you are. Thus, borders are simultaneously open (debordering) for someone and closed (rebordering) for another one. 

Keywords: border, functions of border, border control, bordering, rebordering, debordering

Received: 17.12.2017
Reviewed: 18.03.2018
Published: 17.07.2018




Bartosz Jankowski, Radosław Zenderowski

The walls in the global village
Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 103-115

Abstract: The paper refers to the subject of rapid growth of the number and length of border walls understood sensu largo as all kinds of engineering and military constructions performing the functions of political screens protecting and strengthening the border. The authors attempt to answer the following questions: 1. Where and who is currently building border walls? 2. Why are decisions to build border walls made? 3. Do border walls meet the expectations of the decision-makers?

Keywords: border wall, border, borderland, globalization, security

Received: 05.12.2017
Reviewed: 31.03.2018
Published: 17.07.2018



Barbora Olejárová

The Great Wall of Turkey: From „The Open-Door Policy” to Building Fortress?
Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 117-133

Abstract: Following outbreak of the Syrian civil war in 2011, Turkey recorded an unprecedented inflow of migrants from its southern neighbourhood. The policy of opened borders in the initial years of war contrasted to securitization, the search for international support and other similar policies, which countries usually adopt in cases of migration crises. However, rising numbers of Syrian migrants, the deterioration of Turkish relations with the Assad government and the engagement of the Kurds as another important party in the Syrian conflict resulted in the switch of the Turkish border policy. In 2014, President Erdoğan initiated the construction of over 800 km long barrier on the border with Syria
with an aim to build similar fenced walls on the Iraqi and Iranian border in 2017.
Main aim of this paper is to analyze the development of the Turkish border policy (particularly concerning the border with Syria) in the aftermath of the 2011 events in the Middle East and identify factors, which led up to the shift from the policy of welcoming to the policy of building „Fortress Turkey”.
The first part of the paper will briefly summarize Turkish migration policy and focus on presenting the change of the initial ‘open’ approach to migration from Syria into the current state of building fences in the borderland. Subsequently, the paper will deal with selected factors, which might have caused this phenomenon. These include spread of terrorism and inflow of the Daesh fighters, who were using soft border regime to diffuse their activities to the Turkish territory; increase in smuggling and cross-border illegal trade; fears from the conflict spillover; but also territorial integrity concerns with regard
to revival of the Kurdish activities in the region.

Keywords: walls, borders, migration, Turkey, Syria

Received: 20.11.2017
Reviewed: 05.03.2018
Published: 17.07.2018




Tomasz Ferenc

Ceuta – African gate to Europe
Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 135-163

Abstract: Ceuta, being one of the two Spanish exclaves in Morocco, is also a gateway to Europe for both Moroccans and the migrants arriving from the depths of the African continent. Measures to protect Ceuta against sub-Saharan migrants caused that it became a model of what we call „Fortress Europe”. The immediate proximity of the border is crucial for the functioning of Ceuta, and with the border the key problems of exclave are connected.
In the article, based on the materials collected during field research conducted on Ceuta in July 2017, three key issues will be presented, relevant to understanding the specificity of this region. Subsequently, these will be issues related to the functioning of the border, ethnic divisions among the people of Ceuta and the fears of its inhabitants about the future of the peninsula.

Keywords: Ceuta, Morocco, exclave, border, „Fortress Europe”, securitization, migration, refugges

Received: 14.12.2017
Reviewed: 01.03.2018
Published: 17.07.2018




Marta Kluszczyńska

Wall of Shame and Security – a four decades of a wall dividing Western Sahara
Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 165-183

Abstract: 
In the article based on a pilot study in the Western Sahara and an analysis of literature, 
the author discusses political and symbolic function of the wall (berm). The sand-stone berm surrounded by a minefield and equipped with invigilation technology devices is 2720 km long. Was built between 1980 and 1987 and it is a division line between west and east territory of former Spanish Sahara. Describing a history of its construction, the author indicates a crucial role of the berm in the Moroccan-Sahrawi war that allowed the 
occupation of the Sahrawi territory by the Kingdom of Morocco from the late 1980s. The 
existence of the berm creates a kind of alienated borderland (Martinez 1994), with the 
soldiers of MINURSO controlling the ceasefire, while few migrants trying to cross it from 
one or the other side. In addition to its impact on politics, economy and the environment, 
its impact on the Sahrawi society living on both sides of the Western Sahara and Sahrawi 
refugee camps in Algeria is equally important. The main purpose of this article is to 
describe the process of changing the meaning and functions of the berm. With its military 
origin, in the ceasefire agreement of 1991, now it turned to be a symbol for all parties in 
the conflict: in political, journalistic and artistic discourses (e.g. in Sahrawi poetry and 
performative arts). Moreover, the berm is still the (absent) subject of the daily life on 
both sides. 
 

Keywords: Western Sahara, Morocco, Wall of Shame, Security Wall, Moroccan Western Sahara Wall

Received: 31.12.2017
Reviewed: 06.03.2018
Published: 17.07.2018





Pogranicze. Polish Borderlands Studies. The academic journal
Institute of Political Sciences, Opole University
ul. Katowicka 89 45-061 Opole

ISSN: 2353-3781